Large scale farms state farms, production co-operatives had a high technical level and employed well trained experts, so the biotróf mycoparasites and professional background of production was definitely of a high level. The changes of the s, the turning into market economy, changed the structure of agriculture basically.
- A tervezett projekt ezt a kérdést gazdanövényfajok, az ezeken élősködő obligát biotróf lisztharmatgombák, és ezek intracelluláris mikoparazitái, az Ampelomyces-fajok tritrofikus kölcsönhatásain keresztül vizsgálná, a következő kérdések mentén: i lehet-e szűk gazdagomba-specializációról beszélni a genetikailag különböző Ampelomyces-törzsek esetén?
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- A tervezett projekt ezt a kérdést gazdanövényfajok, az ezeken biotróf mycoparasites obligát biotróf lisztharmatgombák, és ezek intracelluláris mikoparazitái, az Ampelomyces-fajok tritrofikus kölcsönhatásain keresztül vizsgálná, a következő kérdések mentén: i lehet-e szűk gazdagomba-specializációról beszélni a genetikailag különböző Ampelomyces-törzsek esetén?
The Land Act of Hungary states that only natural personalities can biotróf mycoparasites land. On the basis of the Compensation Act and the legislation concerning the reshaping of co-operatives many people acquired land property and started farming independently.
In the situation ensued, the expertise of the agricultural experts previously employed in large scale farms and trained for biotróf mycoparasites tasks, was very difficult to utilize. Many started farming who did not have any experience in running and operating a farm independently and, on the other hand, there were many experts of agriculture who did not have the preconditions to become entrepeneurs and did not have capital.
Additionally the country was in a very difficult situation whereas financial resources could be attained only to a very limited extent.
In this situation the decision was made that in a similar way to countries with well developed agriculture the extension system in Hungary should be reconstructed.
Studies were made on the extension systems of many countries the main conclusion of which was that a uniform extension system has never evolved, all countries developed their ourn system according to local customs, and economic structure, and unifying efforts can not be noticed.
There are countries where training institutions, there are others where chambers of agriculture or farmer organizations undertake extension activities and there are the ones where government institutions carry them out. Effective biotróf mycoparasites systems are not dependant on organizational structures rather it all depends on how much local customs, traditions and possibilities are taken into account.
At this time, inat biotróf mycoparasites Ministry a decision was made according to which a list should be made of those trained experts who could provide assistance for the farmers. At the same time the Budget undertakes — as a subsidy — to pay a certain definite part of the fee biotróf mycoparasites be paid for the extension service.
All farmers who decide to use extension services are free to choose the extension agent whom they trust and is free to make an agreement as for the contents and the fee of the service, and then, after accomplishment, claim the subsidy of the budget.
The extension system of Hungary, with government participation, included, at the same time, other forms of transmitting knowledge as well.
It provided support biotróf mycoparasites the Budget for professional training of the farmers courses, lectures, professional demonstrations with a subsidy of generally 50 per cent as well as undertaking part generally 50 per cent of biotróf mycoparasites costs of the professional publications. The present biotróf mycoparasites of extension The extension system, basically, is working under the same principles today, too.
Circle of those supported through extension Government intentions, in the framework of extension as well, are aimed, first of all, at helping family farms and small producers. In the framework of extension all farmers who meet the required information supply obligation, are entitled to some kind of support. The kind and extent of support and the circle of those entitled to 11 the particular kinds of support are announced in biotróf mycoparasites articles of law published yearly.
In Hungary, according to data, about thousand producing farms satisfied the prescribed information supply obligation figure 1. From among them about 85 thousand farms were entitled to use extension service in programmes described above — with per cent subsidy — according to law in those were entitled to this support whose yearly income from agricultural production did not exceed thousand forints.
About 75 thousand farms were entitled, in the last year, to the subsidy to be claimed after the fee paid to extension agents according to law those were biotróf mycoparasites to this support whose yearly income from agricultural production exceeded thousand biotróf mycoparasites but was less then 30 million.
There are less than 3 thousand farms which are not entitled biotróf mycoparasites support within the above two constructions because their income from agricultural production exceeds 30 million forintshowever, through the subsidizing of various courses, demonstrations and professional publications they also receive support.
Financial background of extension For supporting extension yearly increasing amounts are available.
The amount as compared toby the biotróf mycoparasites has trebled. Last year the Ministry set aside thousand forints for the purpose, the amount this year is 1 billion forints. To demonstrate financial background the separate examination of the various forms of extension seems most biotróf mycoparasites 1 Greatest interest was shown to the programme series which operates with per cent subsidy basically for those producing at the level of self-sufficiency. In the number of programmes exceeded one thousand and the number of participants 32 thousand.
Examining costs, the conclusion can be draun that this is the extension service with the least per unit costs, to one participant the cost is szurke féreg szinesz forints. This form of extension was used by several thousand farmers in In this form of subsidy the Budget pays to the farmer part of the service fee that he paid to the extension agent. The size and extent of the subsidy related to this form of extension is determined by law on the basis of the yearly income of the farm figure 2.
Kiss Levente Dr.
The maximum amount of the subsidy increases depending biotróf mycoparasites the yearly income in the case of the farms with the lowest income it can be 50 forints as a maximum and in the case of farms with the highest income it can be maximum thousand forintsat the same time the rate of the subsidy decreases in the case of farms with the lowest income it is 75 per cent, in the case of farms with the highest income it is 25 per cent.
Examining the costs, the conclusion can be drawn that, as an biotróf mycoparasites, 42 forints were paid to one producer. For supporting these programmes Budget set aside the amount of million forints. On the support of professional publications the Budget spent about million forints. Circle and training of extensionists In Hungary extensionists can be those with a high level agricultural degree biotróf mycoparasites five years of practical experience.
Naturally, in the commercial sphere another, dealer type advisory service is also operating in Hungary.
The various commercial firms which are suppliers of agriculture e. In this commercial type of extension biotróf mycoparasites the government the Budget does not play a part but the two systems work side by side and help the farmers to make the best decisions.
As we see it, an extensionist does not have to know the technology only but has to have some knowledge of economy and law as well. For management of a farm is not only production, as here a whole system must be operated effectively. Thus it is a demand on extensionists that they have proper familiarity in these fields as well.
Extensionists should participate in biotróf mycoparasites training every year. In this refresher training they get acquainted with the most up to date technologies, they are informed on current questions of agricultural biotróf mycoparasites and they are trained biotróf mycoparasites he methodology of advisory work. These trainings are carried out at agricultural universities. As a result a continuos, live relationship develops between extensionists and universities which makes possible a two sided flow of information.
Extensionists who are in everyday contact with farmers concerning production thus convey the everyday problems to be solved to universities so research of universities is concentrated on the solution on the most current problems.
Universities have also started up, and intend to start up training in future, on one hand at basic level as a course and, on the other hand in postgradual training as a specialization e.
Hegedűsné Dr. Pintye Alexandra
Experts graduated like this can become real extensionists sooner. The law in this case — unlike the general expectation of a five year practice — requires only three years of practical experience as a precondition for the young expert to get on the list of extensionists.
Similar relationships develop between extensionists and agricultural research institutes, too.
Research institutes organize biotróf mycoparasites training for extensionists on a regular basis, where they can get acquainted with the newest results in the special narrow fields of research of an institute. Extensionists, in the course of trying to solve a special problem, visit both universities and research institutes, so theoretical experts help practical experts in problem solving.
Kiss Levente Dr.
For the sake of maintaining quality extension work the ministry evaluates each and every extensionist every year. This evaluation includes advisory activities quality and quantityprofessionalism, aptitude, suitability for the task, but also the adequate level of knowledge of legislation and economic relationships.
Only those extensionists can remain on the list of extensionists — handled by the Ministry biotróf mycoparasites who continuously satisfy the requirements of these evaluations.
- Kiss Levente Dr. | MTA NÖVI
- Osztályú fonálférgek
- Pintye Alexandra Kassainé Dr.
Experiences of operating the system and the possibilities of advancement In Hungary parallel to the development of agriculture with special reference to the biotróf mycoparasites of joining the EU the extension system should be developed further, which is, at the present, is evaluated as, considering the economic possibilities of biotróf mycoparasites country, a viable and cost-sensitive system at the disposal of the farmers.
In our biotróf mycoparasites there are tasks in the field of extension which not, or not primarily, the improvement of the financial conditions can and should solve. Th present system, too, provides possibilities for the farmer to employ — in favourable financial conditions, an extensionist.
All possibilities, however, are worth as much as they are used.
Many farmers even now, after several years, do not realize how beneficial it is, if a well trained experts help in their work. It is not recognized that farming biotróf mycoparasites not only production, the essence of farming is to produce marketable products in he requested quality, profitably.
To decisions made in the course of farming much knowledge and information are necessary, 14 which can be found with the extensionists. The most important task is to make farmers realize the importance of extension and the possibilities thereby. With the improvement of financial possibilities extension should be made more organized and institutionalized.
At the present the whole system is controlled and operated biotróf mycoparasites the Ministry, however, it biotróf mycoparasites to be indispensable to create an independent institution the National Extension Centre and under the control of this the Regional Extension Széles szalagfertőzés. These centres rationally biotróf mycoparasites be created on helmint életút basis of agricultural training and research institutions — utilizing the infrastructure there up but operated independently from them.
The most important task of the centres is to ensure the flow of information and the organization of work. Thus the building up of the extension — training — research relations, built one upon the other and co-operating unitedly, is helped along. It is an important task of the Centres to organize and implement free of charge extension programmes.
It is important that these programmes be organized and arranged on the biotróf mycoparasites of a serious, prudent survey of demands so that farmers get answers to questions most interesting to them and influencing their work most. When this type of extension work biotróf mycoparasites of charge extension service for groups was started up in nobody realized the importance of the measure and how great an interest will the programmes generate.
The reactions are definitely positive, however, it can already be seen that the programe can be effective only if it is preceded by a really serious planning exercise.
Az NN számú OTKA/NKFIH-projekt ZÁRÓJELENTÉSE
The centres planned will be able to prepare annual consultation plans, to inform the farmers on them and thus prepare their implementation. This will make it possible that throughout the year always the currently relevant questions will be discussed at the lectures, and so the programme will be even more practical. In the course of developing extension biotróf mycoparasites the practical orientation of extension should be increased. This year the organization of the demonstration farms suitable to provide practical knowledge was started.
This work should be carried on so that — with additional investments — these become really suitable to demonstrate most up-to-date and most effective farming. Employment of computer technics is now indispensable in the field of extension, too.
Items where Subject is "Q Science / természettudomány > QK Botany / növénytan"
The existing information system of extension should be developed further. By connecting knowledge centres training institutions, research institutes to the system the newest research findings become more easily accessible will biotróf mycoparasites the time of heir implantation into practice will become shorter and that accelerate the whole process of innovation.
As a summary it can be stated that the agricultural extension system operates well and the development programmes, that by flexible adaptation help joining the European Union, have been worked out.