Debra L. Conversely, while adult cats often have different and more chronic causes of diarrhea than kittens, the condition remains giardia recovery diet recovery diet common reason for cats to be presented to veterinarians for care. This review discusses some of the more common giardia recovery diet as well as the best approaches for diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea in kittens and cats.
The role of diet in diagnosis and therapy of diarrhea is considered when appropriate. Diarrhea in kittens may range in severity from mild and self-limiting to a severe, hemorrhagic, life-threatening condition.
Knowledge of the most frequently encountered causes of diarrhea in kittens is essential in formulating appropriate diagnostic and treatment plans for these young patients. Although adult cats can also have infectious, parasitic, mechanical e.
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In many adult cats, Giardia species infections are giardia recovery diet or transient, but in kittens, infection is classically associated with an acute onset of malodorous, pale, mucoid diarrhea.
The diagnosis is giardia recovery diet straightforward when the trophozoites or cysts are identified on fresh fecal smears or flotation.
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Treatment of giardiasis in cats and kittens has not changed drastically for many years, and includes specific antiprotozoal therapy combined with environmental control. A note of caution here is advised using metronidazole at this dose for longer than days, as metronidazole toxicity is much more likely to result.
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However, the lack of efficacy may have been due to the combined infection, so, giardia recovery diet true effectiveness of fenbendazole against Giardia species is not known. Finally, experimentally infected cats were effectively treated with a combination product containing febantel Drontal Plus, Bayer Animal Health.
In that study, giardia recovery diet kittens giardia recovery diet not have diarrhea from Giardia infection, but Giardia antigen test results became negative after therapy, suggesting complete removal of the organism. One note of caution is that this drug is not approved for use in cats, primarily because neurologic signs were observed during initial testing. Because reinfection is a major cause of persistent or recurrent infection in a household, cattery, or shelter, appropriate environment control measures are essential.
Such measures include environmental decontamination cleaning all floors, cages, litter pans, and surfaces that have been in contact with feces with quaternary ammonium or Clorox-containing disinfectantscoat cleaning bathing or shaving of long-haired giardia recovery diet isolation of affected animals during the diarrheic phase to prevent infection through grooming and other forms of contact.
Vaccination with the commercially available Giardia vaccine GiardiaVax, Fort Dodge Animal Health, Overland Park, KS giardia recovery diet not prevent infection or shedding of cysts but may reduce the severity and the duration of shedding. As a result of studiesperformed by Lappin, et al, evaluating the effectiveness of this vaccine, it is not recommended for routine use in household cats.
Because Giardia is zoonotic, appropriate education about handling infected cats and kittens is also important. Trichomoniasis Trichomoniasis, caused by Tritrichomonas foetus, has been recently recognized as a pathogen in kittens and adult cats. This is the same protozoal organism that infects cattle, causing early embryonic death, abortion, and pyometra.
However, in cats, the organism infects the large intestinal mucosa and causes chronic large bowel diarrhea characterized by giardia recovery diet mucus, tenesmus, hematochezia, and increased frequency of defecation.
Most affected kittens are healthy, alert, and active. The only outward signs of illness are the presence of anal hyperemia or swelling, and painful defecation. Most infections are diagnosed in young kittens with chronic diarrhea average age 9 monthsbut infection can occur at any age.
Cats that are exposed to the organism will probably become infected, and infection is likely to be giardia recovery diet.
In a recent study, all eight cats that were exposed to Tritrichomonas trophozoites became infected as evidenced by fecal cultures performed throughout the days of the study.
However, infection with T. Diagnosis of this infection can be made by one of four approaches, listed according to relative ease of use and expense: 1 direct examination of the feces for trophozoites, 2 fecal cultures for the organism using the InpouchTF kit, Biomed Diagnostics, White City, OR3 polymerase chain reaction PCR of feces must be submitted to specific labs, Dr.
However, it is still the easiest and potentially fastest way to make a definitive diagnosis.
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The InPouchTF kit is more sensitive than the fecal examination giardia recovery diet takes up to 12 days to grow the organism for diagnosis. The samples can be sent to a lab for culture, or the culture kits can be obtained and used in the practice setting. Because other trichomonad species can grow in the pouch, PCR testing of the cultured organisms may be needed.
PCR testing is the most sensitive and specific method of diagnosis, but is also more expensive and results take longer to obtain because only a few labs can do this test. Therapy of cats with trichomoniasis is difficult because there is no readily available, approved drug.
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Metronidazole and other antibiotics have been used in both experimentally and naturally infected cats but are completely giardia recovery diet in clearing the infection. Because members of the nitroimidazole family of antimicrobials would be expected to be effective against trichomonads, other drugs from the family have been tested. However, this drug is not approved for use in cats and is potentially hepatotoxic and neurotoxic. Thus, it should giardia recovery diet be used when a definitive diagnosis has been made and the owners understand the risks associated with therapy.
It should not be used empirically to treat cats with undiagnosed diarrhea because of numerous anecdotal reports of neurotoxicity, especially at higher-than-recommended doses and for longer than 14 days. All other antibiotics and parasiticidals, including tylosin, enrofloxacin, azithromycin, and fenbendazole, have not been shown to be effective against T. Clinical remission has been shown to occur in many infected cats, usually by 2 years of age, even without treatment.
However, the malodorous feces associated with trichomoniasis reduces the likelihood that infected cats will be acceptable indoor pets. At this time there is féregkészítmények szirupban evidence that this organism is zoonotic, but it is certainly infectious to other cats, and appropriate infection prevention measures should be instituted.
Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium parvum is a coccidian parasite that infects the microvilli of the intestinal epithelium of kittens and immunosuppressed cats. The disease caused by this infection can range from an asymptomatic carrier state; to mild, transient illness; to prolonged, life-threatening malabsorption syndromes.
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In some adult cats, the organism can cause intestinal infiltrates similar to those observed with classic IBD, and because the giardia recovery diet are very small, unless special stains are used, may be not diagnosed. Because, like many coccidians, the organisms are shed intermittently further complicates the diagnosis because infected cats may have a negative IFA.
Because cryptosporidiosis is zoonotic, appropriate precautions, such as wearing gloves giardia recovery diet cleaning any utensils with disinfectants bleachmust be used when infected feces are handled. Treatment of kittens and catsinfected with cryptosporidiosis is very difficult, as the drugs purported to be effective against this organism are either toxic or ineffective in cats e.
Tylosin, metronidazole, and other commonly used antimicrobials are ineffective in eradicating the organism. They may improve diarrhea if a bacterial component is active, but are unhelpful in most cases. Other Infectious Causes of Diarrhea in Kittens Viral causes Other causes of diarrhea that should be considered in kittens include several viral diseases: feline panleukopenia virus, hemorrhagic calicivirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, enteric coronaviruses, and feline infectious peritonitis.
Feline panleukopenia is the giardia recovery diet clinically important intestinal virus of this group and affects primarily unvaccinated kittens, causing fever, depression, anorexia, vomiting, and diarrhea. Diagnosis is usually based on the clinical signs and history, but the canine parvovirus antigen test cross-reacts with the feline virus and thus can be used for confirmation. In adult cats, hemorrhagic calicivirus, FeLV, FIV and feline infectious peritonitis virus are the most important viral causes of enteritis and helminths tünetek kezelése gyermekeknél. Treatment of this and any viral enteritis in kittens is symptomatic and supportive.
Because giardia recovery diet kittens are prone to dehydration and hypoglycemia, fluid therapy and nutritional support are key aspects. The definitive diagnosis of bacterial infections as the cause of diarrhea in kittens or cats is very difficult, primarily because pathogens can be isolated in similar rates from both diarrhea and nondiarrheic feces.
Furthermore, many anaerobic bacteria cannot be easily cultured from feces or intraluminal ingesta due to their lability in air, thus, accurate identification of many of these species will likely require very advanced techniques or molecular giardia recovery diet methods. Fungal causes Other infectious causes of diarrhea include fungal diseases, such as Histoplasma; however, these infections are more likely to occur in adult cats.
giardia recovery diet Parasitic causes Most of the parasitic causes of diarrhea in kittens are typical e. However, therapeutic deworming should still be done in kittens that have diarrhea, even if the results of fecal testing is negative. Anatomical and Mechanical Causes The curious, investigative nature of kittens makes them prone to ingesting foreign substances that may cause diarrhea or vomiting.
In most cases, obstructions or intussusception cause vomiting, but the more distal the problem in the gastrointestinal tract, the more likely giardia recovery diet may giardia recovery giardia recovery diet the primary clinical sign. Mechanical or anatomic causes of diarrhea to be considered in kittens include developmental abnormalities e. In general, diagnosis of these conditions requires radiographs or other imaging techniques, but ingestion of string can occasionally be diagnosed by finding the string trapped at the base of the tongue or by palpation of the resulting intussusception.
Most of these problems require surgery for resolution, and except in the case of developmental abnormalities, often giardia recovery diet a good to excellent prognosis. Nutritional Causes of Diarrhea in Kittens The use of diet to assist in diarrhea management is not a new concept.
Nevertheless, the type of diet used to help manage the problem has become an increasingly complex issue.